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The Quantum Universe 2004

1. Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws?
2. How can we solve the mystery of dark energy?
3. Are there extra dimensions of space?
4. Do all the forces become one?
5. Why are there so many kinds of particles?
6. What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory?
7. What are neutrinos telling us?
8. How did the universe come to be?
9. What happened to the antimatter?

Aydin Sarikaya, Nov.06-2013

1- What is the role of interdisciplinary approaches to study particles? Why?
2- What is the role of international organisations to study particles? Why?
3- What is the value of grid architecture for scientific activities as a social organisaitons?
4- How can national self boundries be evaluated in response to those interdisciplinary and international global economical and law developments?
5- What can be safely valid and verified values for a "digital identity" of new generation?
6- How can old fashioned social systems which were based on 19th century industrilisation be evaluated in terms of new cutting edge globalisation?
7- What kind of formations of social relations can be interpellated in response to the rising levels of communication and control softwares through to the smaller age ranges?
8- How can the conceptual value of "oscilloscope" be underlined in case of wave reality?
9- How ought humanity to see himself among the theory of everything?

Jon Rosner May 15, 2013

(1) Can we explain the patterns of quark and lepton masses and mixings?
  • Why are the quark and lepton patterns different?
  • Does the lepton pattern point to a new mass scale?
  • Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?
  • Will we need to know about dark matter before we can answer?
  • Are there sterile neutrinos?
(2) Are there new symmetries and forces beyond SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1)?
  • Is the standard model embedded in a grand unified theory?
  • If so, can we learn about the stages in which it is broken?
  • Are there hints at present of accessible extra gauge symmetries?
  • Is supersymmetry just around the corner?
  • At what scale is left-right symmetry broken?
  • Does the proton decay? Do neutrons oscillate into antineutrons?
(3) Is there a hierarchy problem?
  • Why is the Higgs light but the flavor-violation scale heavy?
  • Does supersymmetry solve the problem?
  • Is the Higgs composite? If so, is anything else composite?
  • Is vacuum metastability telling us something?
(4) What is the nature of dark matter?
  • What can we learn if dark matter interacts purely gravitationally?
  • Is dark matter represented by a single WIMP?
  • If not, what is the pattern of organization of dark particles?
  • If there is a complex dark world, can it help us understand (1)?
(5) What can we learn from string theory?
  • What is the scale of the extra dimensions in string theories?
  • What insights does it provide to solving strong-coupling problems?
  • Are there any experimental tests of quantum gravity?
  • Does it illuminate gauge symmetries beyond SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1)?
  • Is one of its predictions low-energy supersymmetry?
(6) What is responsible for the apparent acceleration of the Universe?
  • Is there a time-independent cosmological constant?
  • If not, can one measure more than its first time derivative?
  • Is there a theory for the cosmological constant or its equivalent?
(7) What flavor symmetries are preserved up to what mass scale?
  • What do we learn at each level of studying rare processes?
  • What are the theoretical limitations accompanying each process?
  • Do flavor-diagonal rare processes (edm,g-2,...) enjoy any advantage?
  • Are there processes to which we have forgotten to pay attention?
(8) What can we learn from astrophysical sources?
  • What do we learn from gamma rays of 100 GeV and above?
  • What is the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays?
  • Can we detect (and learn things from) neutrinos above a PeV?
  • What will we learn from the next supernova explosion in our Galaxy?
  • What can we learn about non-gravitational dark matter interactions?
(9) What is the source of the Universe's matter-antimatter asymmetry?
  • Are there plausible electroweak-scale mechanisms?
  • What are the constraints associated with a leptogenesis mechanism?
  • Relation between leptogenesis and CP-violating neutrino oscillations
(10) How do we provide answers to these questions?
  • What accelerators and underground installations are required?
  • What advances in instrumentation and detectors are required?
  • What are the present and future needs in computing?
  • How do we communicate the importance of these questions?

Steve Gottlieb May 15, 2013

1) Why are there three generations?

2) Is there physics beyond the Standard Model?

3) If so, what is it?

4) Why do we live in a matter dominated Universe?

5) What is dark matter?

6) What is dark energy?

7) Can gavity be quantized?

8) Theorists love supersymmetry. Does Nature?

9) What is the source of symmetry breaking in the electro-weak sector?

10) Why do quarks and leptons have the masses they have?

Chip Brock May 16, 2013

1. Is the 2012 Higgs Boson an excitation of the Higgs Field responsible for fermion mass?
  • what are the couplings of Higgs Bosons to fermions?
  • what is the coupling of Higgs to itself?
  • is the Higgs a composite particle?
  • are there additional Higgs Bosons?
  • what protects the mass of the Higgs Boson?
  • is the longitudinal polarization of the W and Z due to a primordial partner of the Higgs Boson?
2. What is the nature of Neutrinos?
  • what are neutrino masses
  • what are neutrino flavor and symmetry properties
  • are neutrinos their own antiparticles?
3. How many fundamental forces are there in Nature?
  • is SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) a subgroup of higher order groups in Nature?
  • what is responsible for higher order symmetry breaking?
  • are there additional spin 1 fields?
  • is Supersymmetry correct?
  • do the forces of nature unify at high scale? What is that scale?
4. How many fundamental particles are there?
  • are there more than 3 generations of leptons and quarks?
  • is the doublet structure of fermions the final story?
  • what is the weak mixing among them?
  • are quarks composite?
5. Is there a shortest distance in Nature?
  • are there more than 3 dimensions of space?
  • is it possible to definitively test string theory?
6. Is there a quantum of Dark Matter?

7. What is responsible for the apparent asymmetry between matter and antimatter?

8. Is the proton stable?

9. What is the quantum of Gravity?

Pierre Ramond May 19, 2013

1. Was the Universe one entity at the Big Bang?

2. Do all particle constituents of the Universe have a common origin?
  • lepton-quark symmetry: grand-unification
  • boson-fermion symmetry: supersymmetry
  • triplication of chiral families: family symmetry
3. What causes some symmetries to break?

4. Are there extra dimensions?
  • new space dimensions
  • fermionic dimensions
5. Why does the Universe contain more matter than antimatter?
  • baryogenesis or leptogenesis?
  • does the proton decay?
  • are neutrinos their own antiparticles?
6. What mechanism engenders Inflation?

7. What is dark matter?

8. Why is the universe accelerating?

9. Is space-time locality fundamental?
  • will it break down
  • will quantum mechanics fail?
  • what is quantum gravity?
  • what is a quantum mechanical black hole?

Bob Bernstein May 23, 2013

1. Why is there T-violation? What are the phases in CKM/PMNS and why do they have the values (nearly maximal for CKM) they do? Are there other sources of T-violation?

2. How many space dimensions are there?

3. How many generations are there and why?

4. Why is the CKM matrix perturbative and the PMNS matrix elements large? Why aren’t they exactly diagonal or all equal?

5. Is the neutrino mass set by the SM Higgs? If not, what determines the neutrino masses and mass differences? Is there underlying physics that explains both the neutrino mixing matrix and the CKM matrix?

6. What sets the Higgs mass?

7. What sets the quark masses?

8. What sets the lepton masses?

9. Are protons stable?

10. Why is alpha_S~1, alpha_EM ~.01, and G_F ~ 10^{-5}?

Josh Klein, July 11, 2013

1. What is dark energy?

2. What is dark matter?

3. Where did antimatter in the early Universe go?

4. Are matter and antimatter fundamentally different?

5. Should gravity be described by a quantum field theory?

6. Is the number of generations an anthropic accident?

7. Why are leptons necessary?

8. Why are quarks necessary?

9. What do we need to know to create a Universe?

Vitaly Pronskikh, July 17, 2013

1. How is experiment in particle physics related to theory: is it always led or driven by theory, or can it be independent from it?

2. Is experiment in particle physics essentially different from that in other sciences?

3. What are ways to become certain that experimental results are free of errors?

4. Is knowledge obtained by observation (i.e. Cosmic Frontier) different or provides more (less) grounds to believe in it than that coming from experimentation (i.e. Energy and Intensity Frontiers)?

5. Do experiments in particle physics provide grounds to believe in entities of theories they test or confirm?

6. What is simulation in particle physics? Is it more like theory or like experiment? How is it different from modeling?

7. How is particle physics related to technology? Are they related, entangled, or the same?

8. Is contemporary experiment a closed system where all outside influences are excluded or accounted for? What is the role of experimental background in that?

9. To what extent is design of instrumentation similar or dissimilar to design of theories?

Aaron S. Chou, July 28, 2013

1. Fine-tuning problems have now emerged in 3 separate arenas of particle physics as evidenced by the following robust experimental data — a) the observation of a Higgs with no accompanying low-scale SUSY; b) the observation of an accelerating universe; and c) the vanishing of the neutron electric dipole moment. In each of these cases, there is no empirically clear mechanism to prevent the relevant mass scales (Higgs mass, cosmological constant, Peccei-Quinn scale) from running off to the Planck scale.
  • Are these measurements the first cracks in the armor of the Standard Model and of the underlying quantum field theory description of nature?
  • What can be done to elucidate these issues beyond probes of ever-increasing precision which may only confirm that the problems exist?
  • Are scalar field theories intrinsically not self-consistent? Is the Higgs really the first-ever observed fundamental scalar or is it composite?
  • Is a unified theory including quantum gravity required to tie up all the loose ends at the Planck scale or are there low-energy solutions?
2. How does quantum mechanics behave in curved space and in accelerated frames with causal horizons? Is holographic quantum gravity consistent with unitarity, the strong equivalence principle, or even with empirical thermodynamic observations?

Bob Svoboda (from the International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground Physics, Asilomar May 24-27 2013)

Do the parameters of the neutrino mixing matrix follow a pattern determined by a new symmetry?

Why is there a “periodic table” of elementary particles?

Is CP violation peculiar to quarks, or do leptons also violate CP?

How many different kinds of matter are there?

Are the forces of Nature unified at high energy?

What surprises might be in store for us with new measurements in neutrino astrophysics?